句子成分分析重点复习资料(英语一)

句子成分分析重点复习资料(英语一)

句子成分分析

一、主语 Subject

是一句话的中心,整句话都谈它的情况。

二、谓语 Predicate

是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行为或者状态。谓语必须由动词或动词短语充当,因此动词不定式、动名词、不能作谓语。

谓语要点:

  1. 一个句子中只能有一个谓语。但一个句子中可有多个动词。
  2. 谓语构成方法:

1 实义动词或动词短语作谓语

2 助词加动词的其他形式

3 情态动词加动词原形

  1. 谓语被称为受限定的动词形式,受时态,人称,数的限制

三、宾语 Object

表示动作的承受者。宾语放在及物动词或者介词之后。指物的叫直接宾语,指人的叫间接宾语。

直接宾语 VS. 间接宾语

宾语有直接宾语和间接宾语两种,位于动词或介词后面。指物的叫直接宾语,指人的叫间接宾语。

e.g. My parents gave me a present on my birthday.

四、表语 Predicative

用来说明主语的性质或状态。接在系动词之后,其中接在系动词 be 后是最常见的情况。

e.g. They are very happy.

连系动词

状态系动词be — am, is, are, was, were

持续系动词keep, remain, stay, lay, stand

表像系动词seem, appear, look

感官系动词feel, smell, sound, taste

变化系动词become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run

终止系动词prove, turn, out

可做表语的成分

I am fine. -形容词

He is a boy.-名词

Five plus two is seven. -数词

He is not at home. -介词短语

My hobby is reading. -动名词

Our duty is to make our environment better.-to do 不定式

五、定语 Attributive

定语一般用来修饰名词或代词,意思是“…的”,位于被修饰词的前面或后面,根据位置分为前置定语和后置定语。

形容词放在名词之前,构成前置定语;相当于形容词的短语或从句放在名词的后面,构成后置定语。

e.g. This is red sun.

His work in the hospital is very hard.

可做定语的成分

The boy in blue is Tom.-介词短语

It is a ball pen.-名词

The boy there needs a pen.-副词

The smiling boy needs the pen bought by his mother.-动词短语

六、状语 Adverbial

状语一般用来修饰动词、形容词、副词,表示时间、地点、条件、原因、目的、程度、结果等。区别状语与定语的关键就是看其所修饰的部分,定语修饰名词和代词,且起说明、限制作用。

1.形容词作状语表示伴随的状态.

I got home ,tired and thirsty.

2.副词作状语,可以表示时间,地点,方式等.

He runs slowly.

Yesterday we had a meeting .

3.数词作状语.

The meeting lasted for two hours.

4.介词短语作状语.

I met Tom in the street.

5.不定式作状语,可以是目地状语,原因状语或结果状语.

I came here to see you.

6.现在分词作状语.

They came out of the classroom ,talking and laughing.

7.过去分词作状语.

Dressed in white, she looked really pretty.

七、宾语补足语 Object complement

位于宾语后面,补充说明宾语,能和宾语在意思上构成主谓关系。去掉补语部分,整个句子的意思就不完整了。这就是补语与定语状语的关键区别。

e.g. She wanted this meeting to be a successful one.

可做宾补的成分

I find learning English difficult. (difficult 是形容词做宾补)

I saw the kite up and down. (up and down 是副词做宾补)

She wanted this meeting to be a successful one. (动词不定式做宾补)

We consider him (to be) a good teacher. (名词做宾补)

八、同位语 Predicative

位于名词后面,与名词同一个内容。包括限制性同位语和非限制性同位语。

限制性同位语中同位语与被它限定的词之间不用逗号隔开,非限制性同位语则用逗号隔开。

例句:

  1. Mr. Smith, our new teacher, is very kind to us.
  2. He told me that his brother John is a world-famous doctor.
  3. We Chinese people are brave and hardworking.
  4. He is interested in sports, especially ball games.

句型分析练习

She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room.

The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast.

Soon They all became interested in the subject.

The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill.

句子成分自我检测:

  1. 句子成分包括哪些?
  2. 基本句型都有哪些?
  3. 花边成分有哪些?一个句子中可以有几个花边成分?
  4. 系动词和谓语动词的区别?
  5. 谓语的构成方法?
  6. 主谓宾和主系表的区别?
  7. 定语和状语的区别?
  8. 宾语补足语和定语状语的区别?

真题分析

Warmth at Midnight【2019.10】

Canberra winters are extremely cold, and 2014 brought some of our coldest days. One weekday night I walked to the_____(31)supermarket before it closed at midnight.As I approached, I noticed a group of six or seven people_____(32)by the supermarket entrance.Aware of the_____(33)of late-night walking, I made sure I paid attention. The scene ahead looked unusual.And unusual it was. Expecting to see a group of_____(34)troublemakers, I found a weak, well-dressed old man distributing items of food to a group of homeless people.Rather than just feeding them, he was also engaging them in a_____(35)of warm discussion.The homeless people were rough-looking and_____(36)dressed.But they listened to the man_____(37),not just with gratitude for the food they had been_____(38). With no charity vehicle in sight, this old man  was only representing himself.After I finished shopping, the group was still there, food_____(39), but all laughing.If a weak old man cangive to others in the_____(40)cold at midnight, what excuse do we have?

A.Dangers

B.Local

C.Happy

D.Reading

E.freezing

F.Attentively

G.potential

H.sitting

I.poorly

J.given

K.consumed

L.circle

非谓语动词

一、不定式

动词不定式的构成

(1) 一般式由“

to + 动词原形”构成,被动式:“

to + be + 动词的过去分词”时态:不强调具体时间

e.g. I couldn’t afford to buy a new car, so I bought a used one instead. (afford 与 buy 同时发生)

(2) 动词不定式的进行式由“

to + be +动词的现在分词”构成,没有被动式。时态:进行时态

e.g. When his father came in, he pretended to be writing a letter.

(3) 动词不定式的完成式由“

to + have + 动词的过去分词”构成,被动式“to + have + been + 动词的过去分词”时态:完成式

e.g. I am sorry to have given you so much trouble.

(4) 动词不定式的否定形式由“

not + 动词不定式”构成。

e.g. His mother told him not to ride his bicycle in the street.

动词不定式的用法

(1) 作主语 不定式作主语时常用 it 作形式主语,而把真正的主语放在后面。

e.g. To help others is my duty.

It is my duty to help others.

(2) 作表语

e.g. Her job at that time was to look after the sick boy.

(3) 作宾语

e.g. He has agree to help me with my English.

(4) 作宾语补足语或主语补足语

e.g.The teacher asked us to finish our homework.

(5) 作定语

e.g. I had no chance to go to school at that time.

The next train to arrive is from Washington.

Would you please give me some paper to write on?

(6) 作状语

  1. 作目的状语: to do, in order to do, so as to do (不能用于句首)。

e.g. They all rushed out to have a look at the film star.

  1. 作原因状语

e.g. We were all relieved to see them back safe.

  1. 作结果状语: only to see/find/be told, too…to (表否定)。

e.g. He hurried to the station only to find the train had left.

The little girl is too young to dress herself

不定式自我检测:

  1. 不定式的用途?
  2. 不定式的大概含义?
  3. To 后面加什么?

二、动名词

动名词的构成

(1) 动名词的一般式由“动词原形 + ing”构成,其被动式为“being + 动词的过去分词”。时态:不强调具体时间。

e.g. They all avoided mentioning that name.

(2) 动名词的完成式由“

having + 动词的过去分词”构成,其被动式为“having been + 动词的过去分词”。时态:完成时态。有明确的时间先后关系。

e.g. He retired after having worked for 40 years.

(3) 动名词的否定形式由“

not + 动名词”构成。

e.g. The girl made her mother angry by not taking her medicine.

动名词的用法

(1) 作主语

  1. 动名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。

e.g. Reading is necessary in learning a language.

  1. 动名词作主语表示经常的,习惯的动作或情况,而不定式更倾向某一次特定的、具体的动作。

e.g. Walking is a good form of exercise for both the young and the old.

  1. 为避免“头重脚轻”,可以用 it 作形式主语,而把真正的动名词主语后置。

e.g. It’s crazy talking to the manager that way.

(2) 作表语 表示主语的具体内容

e.g. My favorite sport is playing basketball.

(3) 作定语 如果是单个动名词通常置于被修饰名词之前,表示被修饰名词的用途或性能。

a swimming pool 游泳池

a walking stick 拐杖

【注意】1. 下列动词或词组既可以跟动名词作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但意义不同。

forget to do sth.忘记做某事

forget doing sth.忘记已经做过某事

remember to do sth.记住要做某事

remember doing sth. 记得曾经做过某事

regret to do sth.遗憾要去做某事

regret doing sth.后悔做过某事

stop to do sth.停下来去做另一件事

stop doing sth.停止做某事

try to do sth.努力做某事

try doing sth. 尝试着做某事

mean to do sth.打算做某事

mean doing sth. 意味着做某事

go on to do sth.(做完某事)接着做另一件事

go on doing sth.(=go on with sth.)继续做同一件事

can’t help to do sth.不能帮助做某事

can’t help doing sth. 情不自禁做某事

动名词的用法

在动词 want, need, require 和形容词 worth 后面用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。

e.g. The house needs/wants repairing=The house needs/wants to be repaired.

动词不定式和动名词在作主语和表语时的区别:一般来说,在表示比较抽象的一般行为时多用动名词,在表示具体某次行为,特别是将来的行为时,多用不定式。

e.g. I don’t like watching TV. (一般行为)

I don’t like to watch TV tonight. (具体行为)

动名词自我检测:

  1. 什么是动名词?长什么样?
  2. 动名词在句子当中的作用?
  3. 动名词和不定式的大致区别

二、现在分词 V+ing 主动 进行 令人

现在分词的用法

(1) 作定语 现在分词及其短语可以在句子中作定语,其作用相当于一个定语从句。现在分词作定语时多置于它所修饰的名词之前;分词短语位于它所修饰的词的后面。

e.g. They live in a room facing the north.

There is a crying girl

(2) 作状语 现在分词及其短语可在句子中作状语来修饰谓语动词或整个句子,用来表示动作发生的时间、原因、结果、条件、让步或伴随情况等。

e.g. Climbing to the top of the hill, we saw a beautiful view.

(3) 作宾语补足语

现在分词主要用于以下两类动词后构成宾语补足语:

  1. 表示感觉和状态的动词,如 see, hear, feel, smell, watch, find, notice 等。

e.g. He felt his heart beating faster.

  1. 表示“指使”意义的动词,如 have, set, keep, get, catch, leave 等。

e.g. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting long.

三、过去分词 V+ed 被动 完成 感到

过去分词的用法

(1) 作定语

  1. 过去分词作定语表“完成”或“被动”。

e.g. the risen sun = the sun that has just risen

  1. 单个的过去分词作定语时,一般放在被修饰词语之前,也可以放在所修饰词语的后面。

e.g. Be careful of the broken glass (the glass broken).

  1. 过去分词短语作定语时,须将分词短语放在被修饰的词语之后,功能相当于一个定语从句。

e.g. What’s the language spoken (=that is spoken) in that country?

(2) 作表语

  1. 当“人”作主语时用过去分词作表语,表示主语的状态或思想感情等。

e.g. When we heard of it, we were deeply moved.

  1. 过去分词作表语不要与被动语态混为一体。过去分词作表语表示主语的状态,而被动语态则表示被动的动作。

e.g. My glasses are broken. (状态)

My glasses were broken by my son. (动作)

(3) 作状语

作状语用的过去分词一般位于句首或句末,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随(方式)等。过去分词前可加 when(while),once, if, even if, unless, though 等连词。

e.g. She entered, accompanied by her mother.

(4) 作宾语补足语

能用宾语补足语的过去分词一般都是及物动词,表示被动意义或完成意义,有时两者兼而有之。作宾语补足语的过去分词与宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系,即宾语是过去分词动作的对象。过去分词作宾语补足语的用法主要有:

  1. 过去分词用在表示状态的动词 keep,leave 等的后面。

e.g. They kept the door locked for a long time.

  1. “have + 宾语 + 过去分词” 可以表示两种含义。
  1. 表示“让某人做某事” e.g. I have had my bike repaired.
  2. 表示“遭遇到某种不幸,受到打击”e.g. The old man had his legs broken in the accident.
  1. 在“make + 宾语 + 过去分词”这种结构中,过去分词的动词必须表示结果。e.g. I raised my voice to make myself heard.
  1. 感官动词 watch, notice, see, hear, feel, find 等的后面跟过去分词作宾补,表被动或已完成的动作。e.g. When we got to school, we saw the door locked.
  1. 过去分词用在 want, wish, like, expect, order 等表示“希望,愿望,命令”这一类动词的后面作宾语补足语。e.g. The teacher wouldn’t like the problem discussed at the moment.
  1. 过去分词用在“with + 宾语 +宾补”这一结构中,过去分词与宾语之间是动宾关系。e.g. The thief was brought in with his hands tied behind his back.

分词自测内容:

  1. 现在分词长什么样?
  2. 过去分词长什么样?
  3. 现在分词和过去分词的区别?

Practice

  1. Some thing is wrong with my watch. I must have it ____(repair).
  1. The teacher entered the classroom, _______(follow) by two students.
  2. The lecture was so ______(inspire) that they were all _____(excite).
  3. The book _____ (lie) on the table belongs to me.
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