1.there be 结构

表示“某地或某时存在某物时”, 常用“

there + be + 主语 + 地点/时间状语”结构。

  1. there be 的肯定结构e.g. There is a map on the wall.
  1. there be 的否定结构e.g. There isn’t any milk in the cup.There were no buses there yesterday.
  1. there be 的疑问结构

e.g. — Are there any apples in the basket?

— Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t.

When will there be a volleyball match?

— There is a new student in your class, isn’t there?

— Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t.

  1. there be 结构中 be 的替代词

there be 结构中的 be 可用某些含有“存在”意义的其他动词代替。这些词有 exist, appear, enter,seem, be like to be (可能有), used to be (过去有), remain (还有)等。

e.g. There remained just twenty-eight pounds.

  1. there be VS. have

have 强调“拥有”, there be 强调“存在”, 只表示某地或某时存在某物,此物归谁所有, 并没有说明。

e.g. There are 60 minutes in an hour.

An ant has two stomachs in its body.

  1. 陈述句


  1. 肯定式

He is John

I like reading

I can help you

  1. 否定式

1) 如句子的谓语动词是 be、have 或有助动词和情态动词时,在他们后面加 not 构成否定式。

e.g. He is not John

i can not help you

2) 如句子的谓语动词是行为动词而又没有助动词或情态动词时,在谓语动词前加 don’t/doesn’t/didn’t/。

e.g. I don’t like reading.

3) 含有否定意义的词也可构成否定句。如

  1. no, hardly, never, little, seldom 等
  2. 两者的全部否定 neither…nor
  3. 两者的部分否定 both…not

Both (the) windows are not open.

  1. 三者以上的全部否定 none, nothing, nobody, no one 等
  2. 三者以上的部分否定 all, many, every+not

4) 某些句子中,按语意本应放在 that 从句中的否定词 not 被移到主句的谓语动词中,这种否定结构主要用于表示“相信”“臆测”等动词(如 believe, expect, imagine, suppose, think 等)。

e.g. We don’t believe that he can do it.

I don’t think it will be very cold today.

  1. 疑问句
  2. 一般疑问句

用 Yes 或 No 来回答的疑问句。


1) 当谓语是 be 或 have(有)时, 将 be 或 have 放在主语前面

2) 当谓语动词是行为动词时, 将助动词 do/does/did 或情态动词放在主语前面

e.g. Have you any English books?

Did you go swimming yesterday?

3) 一般疑问句的否定式 (反问句) 通常把 be, have 或情态动词和 not 一起放在句首, 意为“难道…不 (没有) …吗?”。回答反问句时, 如果事实是肯定的, 用 Yes; 如果事实是否定的, 用 No。

—Do you love me? (肯定)

—Yes, I do. (是的,我爱你) / —No, I don’t. (不,我不爱你)

—Don’t you love me? (否定)

—Yes, I do. (不,我爱你) / —No, I don’t. (是的,我不爱你)

4) 一般疑问句中, 如果提问人对答案没有肯定或否定的意向, 句中常用 any; 如果提问人预期得到肯定的答案, 在本应用 any 的地方用 some。

e.g. Is there anything wrong with your pen?

Is there something wrong with your pen?

  1. 特殊疑问句

用疑问词提问的句子,不用 Yes 或 No 来回答。


e.g. Whose father works in Beijing?

e.g. Where do you come from?


e.g. Why don’t you come earlier?

  1. 反义疑问句


1) 如果陈述部分用肯定形式,疑问部分则用否定形式;如果陈述部分用否定形式,疑问部分用肯定形式。

e.g. You had better go now, hadn’t you?

He doesn’t like sport, does he?

2) 如果陈述部分用肯定形式,疑问部分也用肯定形式,其使用有两种情况。

(1) 前部分是祈使句的反义疑问句,疑问部分一般用肯定形式,表示客气。

e.g. Let’s go there, shall we?

Let us go there, will you?

(2) 有时用这种结构表示讥讽、感叹等,或表示怀疑,请对方加以证明。

e.g. So that’s your little trick, is it?

Your bike is outside, is it?

  1. 选择疑问句

选择疑问句是用 or 连接询问的两部分,以供选择,答案必须是完整的句子或其省略式,不能用Yes 或 No,其结构是“一般疑问句+or+一般疑问句”。通常第二个一般疑问句为省略句。

e.g. Do you go to work by bus or by bike?

回答:I go to work by bus. 或 By bus.

  1. 祈使句



1) 说话对象是第二人称时,一般省略主语。


否定式:Don’t (Never)+动词原形+其他成分

e.g. Come in, please.

Never do that again.

2) 说话对象是第一人称或第三人称时。



Don’t let+宾语+动词原形

e.g. Let’s dance! Jack. — Let’s dance, shall we?

Father, Let us marry! — Let us marry, will you?

  1. 感叹句


用以表示快乐、痛苦等强烈感情。感叹句有 how 和 what 开头两种形式。

  1. How 开头的感叹句

1) How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语

e.g. How beautiful the flower is!

2) How 修饰动词,句型:How+主语+谓语

e.g. How time flies!

3) How+形容词/副词(省略主语和谓语)

e.g. How interesting (it is)!

  1. What 开头的感叹句

1) What (a) +名词

e.g. What fun!

2) What (a) +(形容词)+名词+主语+谓语

e.g. What a beautiful picture it is!




He is so handsome and the princess is willing to marry him

I like action movie but she doesn’t like them

复杂句: 从句-由代词,副词,连词把一个简单句变成另外一个简单句的从属成分。

简单句 1+引导词+简单句 2

  1. 名词性从句


一、that/whether/if +完整句子


That、whether、if+ 完整句子

That you are right is a lie

i believe (that) you are right

Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown.

i don’t know if he is trustworthy






1) 陈述句变为以 that 引导的宾语从句。

e.g. He said, “I’m very happy.”

He said that he was very happy.

2) 一般疑问句变为 whether/if 引导的宾语从句

e.g. He said, “

Can you come this afternoon, John?”

He asked whether John could come that afternoon.

3) 特殊疑问句变为由 who, what, when 等疑问词引导的宾语从句。

e.g. He said, “

Where is Mr. Wang?”

He asked where Mr. Wang was.





引导词:that whether 及特殊疑问词


  1. The girls were surprised at the fact that they all passed the exam.
  2. the question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.
  3. 定语从句


在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。引导定语从句的关系词有 who, whom, whose, which, that, where, when, why 等。关系词在定语从句中充当句子成分。

He is the man whom\that i saw yesterday.


  1. 关系代词 that\which\who\whom\whose +不完整句子

It’s the only one that I’ve left.

He is the man whom\that i saw yesterday.

Is he the man who wants to see you?

They rushed out to help the man whose car had broken down

  1. 关系副词 when\where\why +完整句子

when where why=介词+which

There are occasions when (on which) one must yield

Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.

Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?


1.由 who, whom, whose 引导的定语从句

e.g. They live in a house whose window faces south.

The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room.

This is the man who helped me.

  1. 由 which, that 引导的定语从句。

e.g. This is the man that/whom you are looking for.

The letter that/which I received yesterday was from my family.

The building which/that stands near the river is our classroom.

  1. 由 when, where, why 引导的定语从句, 在定语从句中作状语。

e.g. This is the place where we lived for 5 years.

I will never forget the day when I met Mr. Liu.

I know the reason why he came late.

  1. 限定性定语从句 VS. 非限定性定语从句

1) 限定性定语从句是句中不可缺少的部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。

2) 非限定性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明,没有这种从句也不影响主句的意思完整,一般用逗号把主句和从句分开。非限定性定语从句不能用 that 引导,其引导词不能省略。非限定性定语从句常单独译成一个句子。

e.g. He comes from the country where the first Olympic Games were held.


He comes from Greece, where the first Olympic Games were held.


  1. as 引导的定语从句

1) as 可引导限定性定语从句,并在从句中做主语、表语、宾语、状语,构成 the same…as,such…as 等结构。

e.g. This is the same book as I lost.


This is the same book that I lost.


2) as 也可引导非限定性定语从句,其先行词是整个主句,此时,as 意为“正如”,“就像”,在从句中作主语、表语、宾语。as 引导的定语从句可放在主句前或后。

e.g. As had been expected, he won a silver medal at the game.

  1. 状语从句


状语从句在句子中作状语,修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等。状语从句放在主句之前,常用逗号分开;放在主句之后,不用逗号。状语从句按其意义和作用,可分为时间、地点、条件、原因、目的、结果、方式、比较、让步状语从句等。形式为: 引导词+完整句子


引导时间状语从句的词有:when, as, while, before, after, since, till, until, once, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than…, the moment 等。

when/while/as +持续一段时间的事

His phone rang when/while/as he was sleeping.

when/as +短暂的动作

His phone rang when/as he opened his eyes.


He sleeps when it snows


He likes sleeping while she likes eating

before 在… 之前

after 在…之后

since 自…以来

It was ten minutes before he slept


It was ten minutes since he had slept



He slept until/til the bell rang.


Not… until/til

He didn’t sleep until/til the bell rang.


Not until the bell rang did he sleep (强调)

It was not until the bell rang that he slept


as soon as

the minute

the moment

the instant



Hardly… when

scarcely… when

no sooner… than

主句的谓语动词用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。如果 no sooner, hardly 位于句首,从句要倒装,把助动词 had 提到主语前面。


I had hardly entered the room when I heard a loud noise.

=Hardly had I entered the room when I heard a loud noise.

=No sooner had I entered the room than I heard a loud noise.

我要考 75 分!

如果..我就能考到 75 分—这件事发生的条件–条件状语从句

即使…我也能考到 75 分—这件事退一万步也会发生–让步状语从句


条件状语从句用 if, unless (if…not), as/so long as (只要), suppose that, in case 等词引导。如果主句用一般将来时,条件状语从句用一般现在时。

if 如果

unless 除非

I’ll forgive you if you buy me a bag

I’ll not forgive you unless you buy me a bag

=I’ll not forgive you if you don’t buy me a bag

only if 只有…才

if only 要是…就好了

only if it’s 2 a.m.,will I go to bed

if only i could never get fat

as long as、so long as、on condition that、provided/providing(that) suppose/supposing (that)如果,只要

I don’t care what you did as long as you love me


让步状语从句由 although, though, as, even if, as though, however, whatever, no matter who/how…, while 等词引导。

Though/although/even though/even if

尽管、即使、虽然,although 和 though 同义,在一般情况下,可以互换使用。Although 可以用在句首,though 一般只用语句中 ,Even though Even if 表强调

Although I don’t have such experience, I can try it step by step.。

I can try it step by step though I don’t have such experience.

Although you are Wu Yanzu, still I don’t love you.

no matter wh-/wh-ever

whoever /No matter who you are, I dislike you



While you are Wu Yanzu, still I dislike you

while 必须放在句首

Handsome as you are, I dislike you



原因状语从句常用 because, since, as, for, now that(既然), when(既然, 由于)引导,主句不再用 so。

because —-I won’t go because I have to work 强调原因

since —since I have to work, I can’t go 强调结果

as —as it’s 0 clock,all restaurants are closed 表大家都知道的原因

for—The restaurant will go out of business,for it closed at night 表示推断猜测的原因

当回答 why 的问题时,只能使用 because


结果状语从句一般由 so, so that (以致),so/such…that…引导,位于主句之后。

so +形容词/副词+that

The river is so wide that no one can swim across it.

such +名词/名词短语+that

It’s such a boring lecturethat all audience felt sleepy.


目的状语从句常用 so that, in order that 等引导,放在主句之后。意为“以便”、“为了”。

in order that/ so that/so

They worked hard in order that they might succeed.

in order to / so as to

He stopped working in order to/so as to take a rest

In order to make a living, he had to work day and night


比较状语从句常由 as…as, than, not so (as)…as, the more…the more…等引导。从句部分常是省略句。

  1. as…as 和…一样

The boy is as tall as a giraffe

  1. not …as…as/not …so…as 不和…一样

The boy is not as /so tall as the giraffe

  1. 比较级+than

比 the giraffe is taller than the boy

  1. the +比较级…the +比较级


The higher he stands, the farther he’ll see!


The giraffe is two times taller than the boy

The giraffe is two times as tall as the boy

The giraffe is two times the height of the boy


方式状语位于主句之后,用 as, just as, as if, as though 等引导。

e.g. As water is to fish, so air is to man.


地点状语从句常用 where, wherever 引导。

e.g. There are lots of sheep where I live.

Wherever she goes, there are crowed of people waiting to see her.


  1. Dr. Bethune (白求恩) came to China __________ he was fifty.
  2. He began to work __________ he got there.
  3. Let’s begin our meeting __________everyone is here.
  4. I like the English people, __________ I don’t like their food.
  5. __________ you go in China, you can see smiling faces.
  6. He didn’t come to the lecture, __________ he was very busy.
  7. __________we had enough time, we walked to the cinema.
  8. They will help you __________ you meet with difficulty.
  9. I’ll let you know ____ he comes back.
  10. before
  11. because
  12. as soon as
  13. although
  14. She will sing a song ____ she is asked.
  15. if
  16. unless
  17. for
  18. since
  19. It is about ten years _____ I met you last.
  20. since
  21. for
  22. when
  23. as
  24. Read it aloud _____ the class can hear you.
  25. so that
  26. if
  27. when
  28. although
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